Gorilla Glue #4 Grow Journal and Week-by-Week Guide

This is a complete guide to growing Gorilla Glue week by week indoors. In it, we go into details of this strain’s cultivation from seed to harvest, using one real-life Gorilla Glue #4 grow journal as an example and occasionally drawing on data from other grow reports.

We describe a grow cycle that took 14 weeks from seed (10 weeks of flowering) and yielded 159 grams (5.62 ounces) of premium bud. Along the way, we discuss what’s needed to successfully grow Gorilla Glue #4 indoors, how to maintain perfect conditions, and what nutrients and cultivation methods to use.

You’ll see for yourself that Gorilla Glue 4 isn’t hard to grow. She’s resilient to stress and responds well to topping, LST, and super cropping but may stretch too much in flower and needs smart canopy management. And she doesn’t require fancy nutrient schedules to deliver above-average yields.

gg4 strain card and link to buy the seeds

Setup Highlights

For our review, we’ve chosen a Gorilla Glue #4 grow journal by Canadian. The guy uses a 3’x3’ tent equipped with a 400W HPS. It’s a pretty much standard setup, an old tried warhorse of millions of weed growers worldwide.

Even if you don’t smoke much, we recommend starting with a similar-size grow tent because in smaller spaces, it’s more difficult to control temperature and you can’t fit it with a powerful light. And weaker lights produce insubstantial yields of smaller and airier buds. Bigger tents are also more convenient in terms of watering and canopy management.

Surface Area Light
9.8 ft2 (0.91 m2) 400W
No. of Plants Overall Yield
3 15.63 oz (443 g)
Yield per Plant Yield per Watt
5.22 oz (148 g) 1.1 g

Gorilla Glue Veg Time

We’ll start our Gorilla Glue #4 grow journal by describing the plant’s progress through the vegetative phase.

Gorilla Glue #4 is a classic photoperiod variety which means that it’s up to you to decide on its veg time. This particular grower was vegging his plant for 4 weeks and then switched his timer to 12/12 to induce flowering.

In grow reports available online, people veg GG4 for anywhere from 3 to 8 weeks. And even 15 weeks in one case.

As with any other strain, the duration of the veg for GG4 depends on a lot of factors, for example, the number of transplants or the volume of the final pot. But the most important factor is the height of the plant at harvest which is limited by your available vertical space. Please note that Gorilla Glue #4 is a rather leggy plant and stretches A LOT in flower. In this instance, she went from 16 to 68 inches (41 to 173 cm), more than quadrupling in size.

But let’s not get ahead of ourselves and start with germination.

Week 1: What Are the Best Conditions for a GG4 Seedling?

A 3-day-old Gorilla Glue seedling growing in a coco/perlite mix
Three days out of the soil, and our Gorilla Glue grow report begins. © Growdiaries © Canadian

There are a lot of ways to germinate cannabis seeds, and even the crudest, intentionally low-tech methods give you good results if you follow three simple rules: moisture, warmth, and darkness.

You may simply germinate your Gorilla Glue bean by placing it into moistened soil about half an inch (1 cm) deep. It will usually take about 3 days to see the sprout. Aim for 23-26 °C (73-79 °F) for best results.

We understand that it’s too much anxiety for a newbie gardener to wait that long without any feedback. That’s why most people prefer to first germinate a bean between wet paper towels and monitor it as often as they want. Good viable seeds can show the taproot in just 12 hours, and then you can put the sprout in the soil.

After your Gorilla seedling has popped above the surface try to make sure that she sheds the helmet head as soon as possible. Otherwise, it will delay growth. Make the outer shell wet and soft, and you will remove it easily with your fingers.

Keep the environment warm and humid, and use a humidity dome if necessary. The perfect relative humidity for cannabis is the same as recommended for people to be comfortable indoors—between 40 and 60 percent. You can go higher than that for the seedling stage (up to 80%), but the more mature your plant gets, the lower the RH should be.

Related Post  Cannabis Seedling Care: Tips and Optimal Conditions

And when the flowering stages begin for your Gorilla Glue, it’s all the more important to keep the air on the dry side. Beginner growers may find it hard to believe, but marijuana buds can get as moldy as a strawberry or a plum that you left in the fridge for too long. Only with buds, it can happen practically overnight.

In the chart below, you can compare the actual RH in our Gorilla Glue #4 grow journal and the optimal levels that you should aim for:

Gorilla Glue #4 Grow Journal and Week-by-Week Guide: Realative humidity chart
Actual and recommended RH levels for Gorilla Glue week by week.

In the first week from seed, your Gorilla Glue won’t drink much. So spray the surface or water something like half a cup around the base of the stem every couple of days. Of course, if you have pre-moistened the whole volume of your medium in advance.

If you grow your GG4 in soil, she will now find enough nutrients to flourish. In the grow report that we review here, the gardener used a coco/perlite mix (Fox Farm Ko Ko Bop) with a classical ratio of 70/30 percent.

Coco coir is best at retaining water, while perlite creates air pockets in the medium so that roots have oxygen to breathe. Together they make the winning combo. For the same reason, perlite is also beneficial in soil grows.

Some ready-made coco mixes (like this one) are amended with calcium and magnesium and pre-loaded with other essential nutrients. Others are sterile and so require using nutrients (very small doses at first) from practically day one. Starting from the second week, most growers—no matter what medium they use—start giving their cannabis extra nutrients when watering.

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A very important consideration in the seedling stage is the distance from the light. Make sure it’s far enough that the little baby is reaching toward the light but doesn’t get too stretchy to topple over.

Let’s have a look at how the light distance was changing for this Gorilla Glue week by week. (Note that she was growing under a 400W HPS; for other lights, you’ll have to find the optimal distance experimentally.)

Gorilla Glue #4 Grow Journal and Week-by-Week Guide: Light distance chart
Light distance for the whole of Gorilla Glue 4 grow report.

Week 2: GG4 Grows Huge Fan Leaves

A young Gorilla Glue 4 plant at the age of 9 and 15 days growing in a smart pot filled with coco medium
A vigorous progress in week 2 © Growdiaries © Canadian

In the second week from seed, most of the development is still happening underground as roots spread through the medium in search of water and nutrients. The leaves are growing only imperceptibly. Look at their size on day 10: if the first and the second pair span about the same, you’re on schedule.

The more the surface area of fan leaves, the faster they grow. Until something clicks and they explode, which for this Gorilla Glue #4 happened at the beginning of the third week.

The grower noted how quickly his 7 liters of Fox Farm Ko Ko Bop medium was drying. On the one hand, it means more work for you because you’ll have to water more often. On the other, frequently going through wet/dry cycles gives roots the opportunity to both drink and breathe all the time. Cannabis just loves that and grows like crazy. Install an automatic drip system, and you’ll get the maximum benefit from growing in coco.

However, in this Gorilla Glue 4 grow, all watering was done by hand and starting from week 2, the gardener began feeding his girl nutrients. You should keep in mind that weed plants need more nitrogen than phosphorus and potassium in veg. And if you grow in coco, be sure to add lots of calcium and magnesium throughout the life cycle.

It’s safer to start with lower doses of nutrients than their manufacturer recommends. This way you’ll avoid burning young and sensitive roots. Later, if all is well, you’ll get to the recommended values.

Week 3: Topping GG4 And Then Defoliating

A 21-day-old Gorilla Glue #4 trained and overgrowing her fabric pot
Gorilla Glue #4 at the end of week 3 (before and after defoliation) © Growdiaries © Canadian

In the third week from seed, Gorilla Glue 4 looked so well-developed that the grower began to high-stress train her without second thoughts. The purpose of training—both low- and high-stress—is to stimulate side growth, making a bushier and more low-profile plant. It’s of utmost importance indoors where you better keep all the tops at exactly the same distance from the light. This way, you get many buds of the same size and quality.

He started with FIMming. The legend says that this curious procedure was discovered by chance—when a grower “botched” his attempt at regular topping and exclaimed “Fuck, I missed!”, or FIM for short.

When topping cannabis in a usual way, you cut the tip clean, leaving intact two tiny shoots below the cut. These will grow into two full-fledged new apexes (tops) instead of just one.

With fimming, you make the cut either a bit higher or a bit lower, cutting through the side shoots as well. At first, they grow all fucked up and mangled but then recover and—together with the two shoots just below—form four (!) apexes instead of one. And while this process is underway, the lower side shoots also get a major boost.

In the pic below, we have shown in red where the cut for a regular topping could have been made.

GG4 on day 17, befotre and after topping, with cuts and future tops marked
The number of apexes (tops) goes from 1 to 4 when you FIM your cannabis © Growdiaries © Canadian

Several days after the topping, the guy also defoliated his GG4, and rather heavily. The purpose of defoliation is to expose those growing points that are shaded by fan leaves. It’s a perfectly reasonable consideration, but we think many growers get carried away playing Edward Scissorhands.

When plants are stripped down next to nothing, they may LOOK all gorgeous and curvy in flower, suggesting enormous production, but in our experience, extreme defoliation rarely leads to better yields. With that said, the jury’s still out.

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Week 4: Gorilla Glue #4 Veg Time is Coming to an End

A top view and a side view of a 3-week-old Gorilla Glue, heavily defoliated and tied down
GG4 is topped, defoliated, tied-down, and ready for 12/12 © Growdiaries © Canadian

The grower would switch to 12/12 (for flowering initiation) by the end of the first month from seed. Four weeks is not terribly long veg, but in this case, it was the right move to end it so early because even at this point the plant was stretchy.

The guy had to work now all the time, adjusting the ties and trying to keep his Gorilla Glue stretch from getting out of hand. (Btw, using an HPS with all those reds in the spectrum contributes to stretching.) He was also taking pains not to stress his girl too much by LST because he was afraid she could hermie on him.

He also made a change to the diet by adding GHE FloraNectar Fruit-n-Fusion. This supplement contains different carbohydrates from things like cane sugar and molasses, is rich in potassium, magnesium, and sulfur, and is a good way to prepare for the needs of the flowering stage.

Besides, all those sugars are a great source of energy for a plant that is being constantly defoliated. Remember that leaves produce energy in the form of sugars and starches. If you pluck them all the time, be sure to substitute the loss with something else.

And here is the feeding schedule for the whole of the vegetative phase and the first week of 12/12.

Nutrients, ml/gal Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5
CALiMAGic 4 4 5 5
FloraMicro 2.5 2.5 3 3
FloraGro 2 2 2.5 3
FloraBloom 1 1 2.5 3
FloraNectar Fruit-n-Fusion 3.79 3.79

The nutrient schedule for the veg part of GG4 grow diary.

Gorilla Glue Flowering Stages

To induce flowering in Gorilla Glue #4 (or any other photoperiod strain) you need to reprogram your timer to 12 hrs of light and 12 hrs of darkness (12/12). Some growers start counting flowering time from the day they flip the switch but bear in mind that the budding doesn’t start right away.

Depending on the genetics, it may take anywhere from one to two weeks before you even see the first signs of flowering—the so-called pistils, or female hairs. This process may be even slower if there’s only been short veg and the plant hasn’t had a chance to mature.

Gorilla Glue is a quite fast variety. The flowering stage is about 8–10 weeks long. At least, that’s how many weeks of 12/12 you’ll need. The first one or two weeks are a transition period, and then Gorilla Glue starts to bud for real.

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Week 5: Gorilla Glue Stretch Continues

Gorilla Glue 4 at day 29, before and after another heavy defoliation
Gorilla Glue 4 before and after defoliation © Growdiaries © Canadian

At this point in the timeline, Gorilla Glue was the tallest among 4 different strains. Her height and legginess were the reason the gardener had ended the veg so early. He was simply afraid she would otherwise use up all available vertical space and also spread sideways.

He continued with heavy defoliation. When plucking the leaves, he noted their very dank smell. This is by the way how professional breeders choose the most promising phenotypes early on—by rubbing and smelling their leaves.

On day 30, the guy undid all the ties. From now on, the girl would continue to grow untrained. Besides being tall and stretchy, GG4 was also the thirstiest plant in the garden. She was still in her initial 7-liter (1.85-gal) smart pot.

Week 6: After Many Haircuts, GG4 is Still Very Bushy

A very dense-looking Gorilla Glue on days 35 and 43 from seed; no sign of flowers yet
After two weeks of 12/12, the flowering stretch is in, but there’s still no budding © Growdiaries © Canadian

The photos above give you an idea of how quickly a healthy weed plant bounces back after even extreme defoliation. And how quickly everything reverts back to the “jungle” state. Which raises the question of whether removing the fan leaves is worth it in the first place.

Maybe all you really need is to prune the excess branches: those that are too far down the stem and those that grow inside the canopy.

It’s very easy to spot the branches that won’t amount to anything. They’re much thinner; they stretch like crazy and form very long internodes but still have no chance of making the canopy. Their destiny is to remain in the shadows. So why keep them?

Week 7: Gorilla Glue Still Stretches Like Crazy

First female hairs on Gorilla Glue #4 after three weeks of 12/12
Gorilla Glue #4 progress in the third week of 12/12 © Growdiaries © Canadian

Three weeks into 12/12, Gorilla Glue was still focusing on the stretch rather than on producing the first flowers. (Although, those started to appear too—see the right pic above.) The gardener’s job was to raise the light a bit each morning. This was quite an issue because the other strains in the tent were nowhere near as tall.

And, unbelievably, the Gorilla Glue stretch continued for another two weeks until she reached a final height of 68 inches (1,73 m). Let’s have a look at the height chart of this GG4 from seed to harvest:

Gorilla Glue #4 Grow Journal and Week-by-Week Guide: Height chart
Height of Gorilla Glue week by week.

Week 8: Running Out of Headroom

A side view of a super cropped stretchy branch and a very stetchy indoor cannabis plant 4 weeks into flowering
Super cropping as the last line of defense against GG4 stretch © Growdiaries © Canadian

Four weeks into flowering, the stretch got so out of hand that several tops were growing straight into the light and getting burned in the process. The grower had to bend the tallest tops, using the super cropping technique.

To super crop means to crush a branch between your thumb and forefinger so that the branch can be bent in any direction, including downwards. This is a high-stress training (HST) method and is mostly used in veg for canopy management.

The gardener also suspected that he was feeding his Gorilla Glue too much nitrogen and micronutrients (which contributed to the stretch). So he stopped using both, and now the girl was receiving only those formulas that are needed in flower. Plus CALiMAGic.

Nutrients, ml/gal 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
CALiMAGic 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
FloraMicro 1.5 1.5 1.5 1
FloraGro 0.25 0.25 0.25
FloraBloom 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
FloraNectar Fruit-n-Fusion 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Liquid KoolBloom 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

The feeding schedule for Gorilla Glue flowering stages.

Week 9: The Flowering Stretch is Over

A very stretchy weed plant with extremely long internodes and a closeup of an immature but frosty bud
Gorilla Glue stretch stopped in week 5 of 12/12 © Growdiaries © Canadian

As a high-stress technique, super cropping could have stressed Gorilla Glue and made her hermie, but that didn’t happen. She finally stopped stretching but reached a height of 68 inches (1.72 m) which is a nuisance for an indoor grow.

Even if your tent is tall enough, having a stretchy plant like this leads to lower yields. Here’s why:

  1. The lower bud sites are outside the effective range of the light.
  2. They are in the shadow of the above growth.
  3. The plant has diverted too many resources from budding to stretching.
  4. It spends too much energy on the transport of water and nutrients through too long branches.

For all these reasons, it’s in your best interests to minimize the stretch indoors if you can.

Besides lower yields, the quality of buds is also inconsistent in stretchy cannabis. While the top flowers get enough light to become fat and dense, the lowers are tiny and fluffy. They’re often referred to as “popcorn” buds.

Many gardeners remedy this by lollipopping (removing bud sites and leaves in the lower third of the bush). This redirects the available resources to tops making them even bigger and heavier.

This grower however preferred not to go down this road. He explained that he liked to push the levels of nutrients to the limit, and whenever he went overboard with feeding, the lower bud sites were the first to show signs of trouble. So he left them as an “overfeeding fuse”.

Having said this, we don’t think he ever got carried away with nutrients in this grow cycle (see the chart below). Some people up the doses to 1000 or even 1200 ppm sometimes and get away with it.

Gorilla Glue #4 Grow Journal and Week-by-Week Guide: TDS readings chart
TDS measurements for the whole Gorilla Glue diary.

Week 10: Getting Resinous and Smelly

Closeups of well-stacked and resinous marijuana buds 6 weeks into flowering
Even the base of fan leaves gets covered in trichomes © Growdiaries © Canadian

After the flowering stretch has finished, cannabis focuses on stacking up the buds and producing trichomes.

Trichomes (people often call them crystals) are tiny mushroom-like glands that cover the calyces as well as little leaves sticking out the flower clusters. Note that the most resinous of strains, such as Gorilla Glue #4, can have trichomes even on those large fan leaves that are NOT in contact with flowers (see the left pic above).

Trichs are choke-full of THC and other cannabinoids as well as terpenoids and flavonoids. The latter are responsible for the plant’s smell and taste. Naturally, when the plant starts to get covered in resin, it begins to smell too. In this grow, GG4 wasn’t the smelliest of the bunch, though.

Btw, the smell of buds depends on the temperature during flowering. When it’s too hot, flowers evaporate their terpenes at a higher rate which will result in a bland-smelling smoke. And it’s one of the reasons why you should lower day temps to something like 23–25 °C (73–77 °F). In this grow cycle, the temps were not quite ideal but at least consistent.

Gorilla Glue #4 Grow Journal and Week-by-Week Guide: Day and night temperature chart
Day and night temps for the whole Gorilla Glue timeline.

Week 11: Lower Buds Removed After All

Closueps of ganja flowers with lots of trichomes and most of the hairs still white
Gorilla Glue trichomes coverage is impressive © Growdiaries © Canadian

This point in the timeline marks a lull in your activities. You have dealt with the stretch, changed the diet to one suitable for flowering, dialed in all conditions. On the other hand, it is yet too early to start watching the trichomes for signs of approaching harvest. Fertigation remains your only chore.

The only other thing that the grower did for his Gorilla Glue at this stage was lollipopping. He decided that she’d be better off without lower bud sites after all.

Week 12: Sideways and Upside Down

Heavy maturing marijuana buds drooping under their own weight
Gorilla Glue flowering stages coming to an end © Growdiaries © Canadian

By this point in the timeline, you’ll probably start to anticipate your Gorilla Glue #4 harvest time. At least, the specs of the strain that you’ve seen on the product page tell you that harvest is near.

You can start by looking at the state of pistils. These “female hairs” sticking out of buds are white when they first emerge. But by harvest time, they change their color, most often to orange, but more exotic hues are also possible. Anyway, mature pistils also look twisted and dry which signals that your GG4 harvest is fast approaching.

A word of caution: Under an HPS light, pistils tend to look more immature. So inspect your plant under natural light too: the difference may surprise you.

When you see that the pistils are far along enough, you can start inspecting your Gorilla Glue trichomes under a hand microscope. But in this run, it was yet too early.

However, the buds were extremely resinous and so heavy that the branches were bending under the weight. It’s another reason not to let the stretch spin out of control. And when the damage is already done, at least provide some kind of support in the form of stakes, trellises, yo-yos, ScrOG net, etc.

Week 13: Got Milk? What About Amber?

A long conical cannabis cola almost ready for harvest with yellowing edges on fan leaves and a macro shot of trichomes
Gorilla Glue trichomes look almost ready but not quite © Growdiaries © Canadian

Now, when the pistils are all orange, twisted, and dry, it’s time to watch the state of the trichomes in earnest. Because it is them that will tell you if your Gorilla Glue is ready to pick.

You should harvest your Gorilla Glue at the peak of her potency which is easy to determine by the color of trichomes. When they are clear, it’s too early because they can produce yet more THC as well as other cannabinoids and terpenes. The presence of all these substances makes trichomes appear milky/cloudy. And this marks the perfect moment to harvest your buds.

Please bear in mind that the color of trichomes determines not only the potency but also the character of the high. After most or all of the trichs have become cloudy, a few of them will start to turn amber. Look closely at the macro shots above and below to see what we mean.

No amber means that your Gorilla Glue will produce a more heady effect. And the longer you wait and the more ambers you see, the more your Gorilla Glue will make you relaxed and sleepy. It’s because, in amber trichomes, THC starts to degrade to cannabinol which doesn’t so much warp your mind as sedates you.

Mostly clear trichomes will produce a high that is felt mostly in the head and without much body buzz, but it can make you paranoid and can be weaker compared to more mature buds.

The state of the trichomes will also tell you when to flush Gorilla Glue. It all depends on the medium you grow in because, in hydroponics and soilless mixes, such as coco, it only takes one week to flush. In soil, you may need as much as two weeks. So we suggest starting the flush in soil when the first cloudy trichomes appear. In coco and similar mediums, you may start flushing when most of them are cloudy or even when you see the first ambers.

Week 14: Gorilla Glue Harvest

A perfectly mature green marijuana cola and a macro shot of Gorilla Glue trichomes, most of them cloudy and a few amber
After 10 weeks of 12/12, it’s Gorilla Glue #4 harvest time © Growdiaries © Canadian

As we said earlier, in the last week or two before your Gorilla Glue harvest, you should give her nothing but pH’d water. This will give her a chance to uptake the remaining chemicals from the medium and use up those that were already in her system. After a proper flush like this, the smoke will be pure, tasty, and smooth, the joint won’t need relighting, and will leave snow-white ash.

If you dry your cannabis in the same tent, you can cut the plant as a whole and hang it upside down. Make sure to control the temperature and relative humidity. They should be the same as during the Gorilla Glue flowering stages. Another important thing is darkness, and you should probably leave the oscillating fan on.

The initial drying usually takes anywhere from 5 to 10 days depending on the conditions. The longer it is, the better (potentially) the quality, but watch out for mold. You can slow down the process by wet-trimming both the fan leaves and the “sugar” leaves because this would drastically reduce the evaporation surface.

When the surface of the buds is dry to the touch, try to bend the branch. If it snaps, it’s time to cut the nuggets from the branches and put them into glass jars for curing.

Curing serves not only to slowly evaporate the remaining water from flowers. It also gives them time to degrade chlorophyll, sugars, starches, and other organic compounds. You don’t want all those in your smoke because they make it smell like hay, taste terrible, and cause coughing.

Gorilla Glue takes at least 3 weeks to cure properly. This may include the week or so of drying and another two in the jars. However, chemical reactions don’t stop after 3 weeks, and you may find the buds taste better and better the longer you cure them. Curing also makes Gorilla Glue more potent.

The End Result

A weed branch with round compact nugs, yet untrimmed and very frosty, lying next to a pair of garden shears
Gorilla Glue #4 yield per plant is quite impressive at 159g © Growdiaries © Canadian

For this Gorilla Glue #4, harvest time was a happy time because buds were big, very dense, and thus massive. The grower harvested 159 g (5.62 oz) from just one of 3 plants grown under a 400W HPS. The overall yields per watt for GG4 and other plants in the tent were through the roof.

The grower noted an extremely potent high once the buds were cured, and the earthy and flowery smell produced a combination that was hard to describe but very pleasant.

We have analyzed GG4 yields in other grows too and compiled them in a table:

Yield per Plant Weeks, Total Weeks in Flower Type of Light Wattage
53g (1.87oz) 16 10 LED 450
92g (3.25oz) 24 9 LED 400
45g (1.57oz) 12 7 HPS 400
38g (1.34oz) 14 9 LED 400
100g (3.53oz) 14 7 HPS 400
31g (1.1oz) 13 8 LED 340
129g (4.55oz) 18 9 LED 300
76g (2.68oz) 13 7 LED 280
164g (5.78oz) 19 9 LED 340

As you can see, on average, Gorilla Glue #4 yields 81g (2.85oz) per plant after 8.3 weeks of flowering. Gorilla Glue #4 veg time depends on the setup and growing methods, and in our sample, the whole life cycle takes from 12 to 24 weeks, with about 16 weeks on average.

Main Takeaways From Gorilla Glue #4 Grow Journal

Gorilla Glue genetics is strong, vigorous, and easy to grow. This strain doesn’t take long to flower, but you might come across a stretchier (and longer) GG4 phenotype. In this case, we recommend shorter veg.

You can get away with feeding your Gorilla Glue 4 higher doses of nutes, but the nutrient schedule doesn’t need to be very sophisticated to get good results (as we’ve seen in this GG4 grow diary). She’s also a very thirsty variety.

The smell isn’t overwhelming, but you’ll still need a good carbon filter during flowering stages. Gorilla Glue #4 responds well to any high-stress training methods and yields way above average.

As for the quality, the buds have a very complex and nuanced flavor that is not so easy to describe, and the smoke is insanely potent. But it’s what you may expect from one of the most resinous genetics out there. Happy growing!

Buy Gorilla Glue seeds at Herbies Head Shop

All images in this post were taken from GrowDiaries, the world’s largest weed-growing community.


Foxtailing Strains 2022. With Pictures and Statistics

Article Highlights

  • The tendency to foxtail is most common among tropical sativas
  • Some varieties, like the Trainwreck family, are notorious foxtailers
  • Some of the “purple” or “blue” genetics may tend to foxtail
  • Even if a strain is prone to foxtailing, not every phenotype will foxtail on you
  • Even “normal” strains may foxtail as a response to heat/light stress
  • The 11/13 light cycle increases the expression of foxtailing genes, too
cannabis flowers with calyces looking like a string of pearls
This Devil Cream Auto is an example of extreme foxtailing.

In a separate article, we talked about the reasons your buds may foxtail. The usual suspects are heat and light stress. It means that either your plant tops are too close to the lights or there’s been a heatwave that raised the temperature in your growing space.

In yet another post, we also mentioned that keeping your photoperiod strains under 11/13 in flower may result in foxtailing. It’s because foxtailing is a sativa trait and the 11/13 light cycle leads to the expression of sativa traits.

And sometimes you have absolutely no control over foxtailing because it’s genetic. So, if you hate to see your buds foxtail, avoid the strains in the list below. And if you want to grow foxtailing weed, prepare to be patient. When growing cannabis from seeds, you’ll see several phenotypes in the same strain and not all of them will foxtail.

I have personally seen foxtailing in my grow room on a few occasions, but for this post, I needed a bigger sample. So I did a thorough search through the Growdiaries community to find marijuana strains that foxtail more often than others.

Foxtailing in Sativa Strains

You have bigger odds of seeing foxtailing if you grow strains that are pure sativas or have a very high percentage of sativa genes in them. A good example is any strain with “Haze” in its name.

Mature flowers of Dr Grinspoon looking like strings of pearls
A close up of a Super Lemon Haze bud with a spire on top and bullet-shaped calyces on the sides
A view of a grow tent with huge foxtailing colas and a closeup of a cola with many spires
Thin tapering tops of very frosty buds
Two Acapulco Gold buds: an indoor and outdoor one, both showing mild foxtailing
Mature swollen buds with signs of foxtailing
Closeups of cannabis buds with huge swollen calyces
A gloved hand holding a huge, mildly foxtailing marijuana cola
Very mild foxtailing on fat and dense marijuana buds

Dr. Grinspoon (Barney's Farm) © Growdiaries

Super Lemon Haze (Green House Seeds) © Growdiaries

G13 Haze (Green House Seeds) © Growdiaries

Hawaiian Snow (Green House Seeds) © Growdiaries

Acapulco Gold (Barney's Farm) © Growdiaries

Laughing Buddha (Barney's Farm) © Growdiaries

A.M.S. (Green House Seeds) © Growdiaries

Tangerine Dream (Barney's Farm) © Growdiaries

Neville's Haze (Green House Seeds) © Growdiaries

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Swipe to see all images in the gallery.

Frankly, it’s not always clear if sativa buds are foxtailing or not. Sativas often have thin, spear-like colas. Or the buds may explode in every direction, become very fat but remain spongy at the same time. So, there were quite a few borderline cases, but I tried to do my best. Here are the results.

Strain, Sativa/Indica
None Mild Strong Extreme
Dr. Grinspoon, 100/0
Barney’s Farm
1 6 9 2
Super Lemon Haze, 70/30
Green House Seeds
16 6 4
G13 Haze, 80/20
Barney’s Farm
8 4 1
Hawaiian Snow, 80/20
Green House Seeds
3 1
Acapulco Gold, 70/30
Barney’s Farm
13 3
Laughing Buddha, 80/20
Barney’s Farm
19 3
Super Silver Haze, 70/30
Green House Seeds
4 2
A.M.S., 40/60
Green House Seeds
1 2
Tangerine Dream, 60/40
Barney’s Farm
20 2
Neville’s Haze, 90/10
Green House Seeds
Pineapple Haze, 30/70
Barney’s Farm
2 1
Arjan’s Haze #3, 70/30
Green House Seeds
4 1

The Trainwreck Line

Whenever people start to discuss foxtailing genetics, the name “Trainwreck” pops up every time. Indeed, I managed to find a couple of examples where Trainwreck buds foxtail in a big way.

Extremely long spires on Train Wreck autoflower
Many protruding shoots on K-Train colas
Long spear-like marijuana bud with many white pistils

Train Wreck Auto (King Crop Seeds) © Growdiaries

K-Train (Green House Seeds) © Growdiaries

Dark Ghost Train (Rare Dankness) © Growdiaries

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Swipe to see all images in the gallery.

Unfortunately, I only found a few grows, so the sample is very small. Anyway, these are the results:

Strain, Sativa/Indica
None Mild Strong Extreme
Train Wreck Auto, 60/30/10
King Crop Seeds
2 1 1
Green House Seeds
1 1
Dark Ghost Train
Rare Dankness
1 1
Trainwreck Auto, 55/45
8 1

Purple or Blue Genetics

When I was searching for foxtailing strains on Growdiaries and on different forums, I was surprised to see foxtailing in such varieties as Blue Cheese, Critical Purple Auto, and Devil Cream Auto. All these strains don’t have much sativa in their DNA, but they’re all purple.

Then I asked myself what comes to mind when I think of purple buds. Well, I picture them either bloated and loose, or with huge dense calyces that shoot in every direction and almost resemble bullets. And sometimes purple buds look like a bunch of grapes or even a string of pearls.

Buds looking like a bunch of frosty pearls
A purple weed bud with many fat tapering offshoots
A weed bud untrimmed and displaying very strong foxtailing and the same bud trimmed
Two different foxtailing colas: one with several side spikes, the other with a spear-like top
Big and lumpy purple buds before harvest

Devil Cream Auto (Sweet Seeds) © Growdiaries

Dark Devil Auto (Sweet Seeds) © Growdiaries

Black Cream Auto (Sweet Seeds) © Growdiaries

Blue Cheese (Royal Queen Seeds) © Growdiaries

Purple Punch (Barney's Farm) © Growdiaries

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Swipe to see all images in the gallery.

Well, it’s just a theory of mine that many purple genetics tend to foxtail. You can check it yourself, and below, you can find a few examples. Please note that Sweet Seeds Devil Cream Auto turned out to be the second most foxtailing strain in our review. And both of its parents—Dark Devil Auto and Black Cream Auto—have this tendency, too.

Strain, Sativa/Indica
None Mild Strong Extreme
Devil Cream Auto, 20/80
Sweet Seeds
10 5 2 3
Dark Devil Auto, 60/40
Sweet Seeds
9 7 1
Black Cream Auto, 5/95
Sweet Seeds
11 5 1
Blue Cheese, 40/60
Royal Queen Seeds
5 4 1
Critical Purple Auto, 0/100
Growers Choice Seeds
14 2
Purple Punch, 10/90
Barney’s Farm
29 4

That’s it for now. Later, I may add other genetics to this list. And if you have encountered foxtailing strains in your grows, please share in the comments.

Foxtailing Buds: Good or Bad? Causes, Fixes, and More

Foxtailing buds have their fair share of fans. It’s evidenced by the fact that some growers look specifically for foxtailing strains when they shop for cannabis seeds. However, this is a niche demand, and most of you prefer their buds to be compact and dense, and not elongated, wispy, and airy. Unfortunately, this is exactly what foxtailing in weed leads to.

Foxtailing buds can be due to either genetics or stress, usually heat and light stress. While you can’t fight genetic foxtailing, you can and should do your best to reduce environmental stresses. It’s not just about the bag appeal of your buds, but about their weight, potency, and aroma as well.

What is Foxtailing in Plants?

We say that buds are foxtailing when they begin to elongate uncontrollably at the tip or grow a lot of tapering side shoots. The cola assumes a strange frilly shape that is not to everyone’s liking.

pointy buds on Green Crack Auto
This huge and high-yielding Green Crack Auto has very pointy buds © Growdiaries © Hawkbo

But let’s start with how cannabis buds normally develop. Flower clusters in cannabis consist of many calyces. A calyx is where the seed develops if the buds catch some male pollen. Calyces usually stack up very close to each other, forming those compact fat colas that we love so much.

However, if you happen to grow some naturally foxtailing Sativa or it’s too hot in your garden, calyces may grow far apart, with noticeable spaces in between. Then the cola may indeed remind you of a fox’s tail. (Interestingly, cola means ‘tail’ in Spanish.)

In the most severe cases, each calyx may grow on its own separate ‘stick’, but mostly a string of calyces just grow on top of each other, forming thin tapering spires.

harvested and trimmed foxtailing buds in a glass bowl
This Zkittlez Auto was flowering during a heatwave, hence the foxtailing. © Growdiaries © Treighfunky

Quite often, you will also see a lot of small, roundish, deep-green, and not very sugary-looking ‘sugar leaves’ growing between the calyces of a foxtailing plant. They look like the plant has second thoughts of reverting back to veg. In short, foxtailing weed is something you can’t miss.

sugar leaves on foxtailing buds
‘Sugar leaves’ on foxtailing buds have a strange shape and color. © Growdiaries © Treighfunky

What Causes Foxtailing Buds?

There are two main foxtailing causes — the plant’s genetic makeup and its specific reaction to environmental conditions. We’d say these two are closely related, and we’ll shortly explain why.

Let’s start with the second one. Why does foxtailing happen if nothing in its genes makes it particularly prone to this issue? Most marijuana growers agree that what causes foxtailing in weed is usually heat stress. Frankly, we couldn’t find any research linking bud foxtailing to heat stress in cannabis, but the issue was studied in other species.

There is the example of heads of cabbage not forming in the tropics. Tropical heat turns a cabbage plant into a tall stick with every leaf on it growing separately. At least, that’s what they told us in school. The same thing happens when people try to grow temperate-zone pines in the tropics. Individual shoots may each become several feet long without any side branching.

In cannabis, this reaction to heat may be a defense mechanism. In the tropics, heat goes hand in hand with high humidity which may spoil the buds if they are too solid. That’s why Sativa buds are generally airier than Indica buds. And foxtailing is one way to achieve that. This would explain why tropical Sativas have more predisposition toward foxtailing.

Related Post  Autoflower Temp and Humidity: With Real-Life Examples

Is Foxtailing on Weed Bad?

The answer depends on genetics. If your strain of weed has genes that tell it to foxtail, you may not like the looks of the buds, but they may turn out to be outstanding in every other respect. The potency, the character of the high, as well as the aroma and the flavor may be like nothing you’ve ever experienced.

In this case, foxtailing isn’t good or bad per se. It’s just the strain’s feature, and you’ll have to accept it. Or choose another strain for the next time and move on.

The Dr Grinspoon strain is a perfect example of genetic foxtailing
The Dr Grinspoon strain is a perfect example of genetic foxtailing. © Growdiaries © DreamCatcher

But if foxtailing is not genetic, treat it as a sign of trouble and adjust your environment accordingly. People often wonder: “Does foxtailing affect potency?” Foxtailing itself doesn’t, but its UNDERLYING cause—be it heat stress or light stress—certainly does. Excessive heat also leads to the evaporation of terpenes, making your buds less aromatic and flavorful. And yields may also suffer.

So, while foxtailing weed isn’t bad, it’s also not the best bud you can hope to grow. It’s blander, less potent, to say nothing of its reduced bag appeal.

How to Fix Foxtailing Buds?

More often than not, the cause of foxtailing on buds indoors is the wrong distance of lights from the plants. You can tell that this is the case if all of the fox tailing is on the tops closest to the light. So, to stop foxtailing, simply raise the light.

Devil Cream Auto foxtailing in week 9 from seed
Devil Cream Auto foxtailing in a bad way in week 9 from seed. © Growdiaries © scotch_egg

For traditional HPS bulbs, try the back-of-your-hand test. Place your hand under the lights on the level of plant tops, palm down. If you feel a burning sensation on the back of your hand, the light is too close. It means that the buds receive too much heat radiation, and this indeed may be the reason why they foxtail.

LED lights can cause foxtailing on weed, too, but testing the distance with the back of your hand may not work. However, most LED lights worth using in a cannabis garden come with instructions. Follow them and watch how your plants react. If the distance is too short or the light operates at full power, you will see symptoms of light stress and heat stress. If the light is too far off or dimmed too much, you may see an unusual amount of stretch. Try to find the ‘Goldilocks zone’ and stay within it.

The Importance of Ventilation

Sometimes, heat radiating from the light affects not just the top buds but causes the temperature to increase throughout the tent. It happens a lot in summer, especially during a heatwave. In this case, you may see the foxtailing affect not only the tops but the middle and lower bud sites, too. A good extractor fan may help the matter, but using an oscillating fan is also important. By constantly moving the air inside the grow space, it will make sure there are no heat pockets.

stacked calyxes on the Auto Kaya 47 bud
For this Auto Kaya 47, the temperature was quite low in flower. So, the foxtailing is probably genetic. © Growdiaries © Marquise_ao_Sul

How to Stop Foxtailing Outdoors

A heatwave can wreak havoc on your outdoor garden, too. In a greenhouse, you can also use fans to lower the temps inside it, but outside, the only way you can help your weed plants deal with the heat is to shade them from the sun during the hottest hours.

If you live in the desert, your best option might be to plant your garden in a spot where trees or structures shade it from the afternoon sun. Or you may span the semi-transparent shade cloth over your plants.

Related Post  Outdoor Marijuana Temperature Range: Ideal, Okay, Extreme

Can Foxtailing be Reversed?

If you have caught foxtailing early on in flower, odds are that you can still get normal-looking buds at harvest. The plant simply has enough weeks of flowering to grow a bunch of normal flower clusters on top of those that were initially foxtailing.

But if the problem persists till late in flower, and buds keep foxtailing near harvest, there’s nothing you can do to change their looks for the better. So be proactive and don’t postpone resolving the issue till the end of flower.

When to Harvest Foxtailing Buds?

In contrast to normal flowers, foxtailing buds have this unfortunate feature: they take forever to mature. You just see more and more calyces forming, with more and more white pistils on them. And when you watch the trichomes on this new growth, they are clear, meaning not ready for harvest. This is another reason to not let your buds foxtail.

Zkittlez Auto foxtailing before the harvest
It may not look it, but this foxtailing bud has actually been 8 weeks in flower. © Growdiaries © Treighfunky

Other than that, the general rule applies. Harvest foxtailing buds when the majority of the trichomes or all of them are milky and some are starting to turn amber. And if you don’t have a magnifying glass to inspect the trichs, wait at least until all of the pistils (female hairs) wither and turn brown. In either case, the constant emergence of fresh growth on your foxtailing buds will try your patience.

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

The bottom line is that fox tailing weed can be a good thing if it’s a genetic feature of some exotic tropical Sativa. But it’s bad if the foxtailing is due to stress.

Stress can do so much more damage to your cannabis than simply spoiling the appearance of your buds. It can negatively affect yields, flowering time, potency, smell, and taste. So, if you see any sign of stress—whether the foxtailing or anything else—act quickly and try to create for your weed the optimal conditions it deserves.


How Long do Autoflowers Really Take vs What is Promised?

The reason autoflowers are so popular is the incredibly short time it takes them to fully mature. But, for many growers, it sounds too good to be true. Hence the suspicious question: how long do autoflowers really take?

The good news is that autoflower time from seed to harvest is more or less what seed breeders promise, that is not very long. You can scroll down right now and look at the infographics where we show how many weeks autoflowers take compared to their specifications.

Or, if you’re new to the game, let’s take a look at what makes an autoflower seed to harvest time so short.

Autoflowers Flower Time Doesn’t Depend on the Light Schedule

Let’s start with traditional cannabis strains. They are short-day plants, aka photoperiodic, or simply photoperiod. If they grow naturally, photoperiod varieties only start to flower at the end of summer or at the beginning of fall—when the days become short enough.

In indoor setups, the flowering begins only if you set your timer to 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night (12/12). And if the days are longer (e.g. 18/6), cannabis just keeps on growing and no flowering happens.

Seed producers have traditionally selectively bred cannabis for the earlier onset of flowering and shorter life cycle, but Nature beat them to it. That is to say, it ‘created’ Cannabis ruderalis, a small-statured feral plant that is adapted to very short Siberian or North European summers. Breeders have learned to add ruderalis DNA to traditional varieties to create autoflowers.

Autoflowers flower time and the whole life cycle are so short because they start to flower automatically in a couple of weeks from sprouts. Outdoors, they can be grown and harvested in any season (provided that the weather is warm enough):

  • in spring (when days become longer),
  • in summer (when days are the longest),
  • in autumn (when days become shorter again).

Moreover, in milder climates, you can even grow autos in winter. Just make sure that the day temperature is at least 15°C (59°F) and there are no night frosts.


Related Post  Outdoor Marijuana Temperature Range: Ideal, Okay, Extreme


And What About Indoors?

Indoors, you can use any light schedule from 12/12 and all the way to 24/0. Whatever is most convenient to you. It’s because longer light hours usually don’t affect autoflowers flower time.

This wasn’t always the case. Just a few years ago, it was a common complaint on forums that an autoflower keeps growing. Obviously, the expression of ruderalis genes in such a plant was too weak, so it wouldn’t flower at 24/0 or 20/4. Sometimes, even a 18/6 light cycle was too much. People were advised to switch to something like 16/8, 14/10, or even 12/12.

There’s even a term for this type of plants — superautos. Superautos tend to be big and high-yielding, but take forever if you treat them like normal autos. Today’s breeders do their best to create autoflowering varieties that never require any changes in light schedule.

How Long do Autoflowers Take in Different Conditions?

When planning how many weeks for autoflower you’ll need, take into account the following:

  1. Indoors or outdoors. In our experience, the same autoflowering strain usually takes a week longer when grown outside. This may be due to the less controlled growing conditions (see 2 and 3), or to the fact that outdoor weed is mostly grown in beds and not containers (see 4).
  2. Ideal vs subpar environment. The flowering in autos is triggered by size/maturity, rather than age. Obviously, plants reach the target size faster if the conditions are right and there’s no stress. And if the growth of an auto is stunted or slowed down for some reason, the start of flowering will be delayed.
  3. DWC vs soil. In hydroponics and soilless mediums (coco), seedlings tend to develop faster than in soil. This means that they’ll be several days faster to reach maturity and enter the flowering phase.
  4. Pot size. In smaller containers, autoflowers take less time. The reason is that when root tips reach the walls of a container, it gives plants a signal that there’s no more available space (and resources) and that they better switch to flowering.

Training an Autoflower: How Many Weeks This May Add?

When working on this post, we asked ourselves this question: how many weeks do autoflowers take if you use low-stress/high-stress training methods? So we have screened 60 grows for such techniques as topping/fimming, defoliation, and LST.

Frankly, we didn’t see any pattern here. Please look at the tables below for yourselves. As you can see, we have sorted all grows by the length of the cycle — shorter cycles first. If LST/HST methods really affected the length of the grow, they would cluster at the bottom of each table. This doesn’t seem to be the case.

In a separate post, we looked at how autoflower topping affects the yields. The findings were rather ambiguous, but interesting.

How Long Do Autoflowers Really Take?

For insights, we turned to Growdiaries which is a large enough growing community to contain many answers.

We took 4 most popular autoflower breeders, then 6 most popular strains from each breeder, and finally 10 finished grows from the top of each list. All in all, we’ve scraped the data from 240 grow journals.

So, to answer your question—how long do autoflowers really take—look at the distribution of dots on the infographic. Please note that the baseline (‘0’) is what a particular breeder promises. And you can mouseover on a dot to glean some more info.

How long Autos

Interpreting the Results

As you can see, these 4 breeders specify autoflower time from seed to harvest more or less realistically. Many growers really do cut down their plants within the given timeframe, and for others, their autoflower seed to harvest time is even shorter. Nevertheless, there are many instances where growers had to wait several weeks longer.

Interestingly, the more cutting-edge auto genetics by FastBuds take longer than older strains by this same breeder. Obviously, they’re recently less preoccupied with speed than with size/yield of their creations.

A Still Deeper Look

We’ve gone into more detail with FastBuds and six of their strains. Our goal here was to find an answer to the following question: how many weeks do autoflowers take if you train them or transplant them and how do they react to different light schedules? As mentioned earlier, we found no correlation.

Key Takeaways

Autoflowers are the fastest marijuana variety on the market. Quite often, they finish as fast as a breeder promises, or even faster. And if an auto takes longer, it usually reaches greater size and brings in better yield.

Anyway, regardless of the time it takes them, no modern autoflowers depend on seasons/light schedule, and they always flower automatically.


11/13 Flowering Light Cycle: Can it Improve Your Grow?

When growing photoperiod marijuana, it’s a standard practice to give it 18/6 in veg and 12/12 in flower. However, there are growers who use a shorter photoperiod and swear by it. Let’s review the existing studies and anecdotal evidence and see if 11/13 flowering light cycle and similar light schedules really work.

What Does Science Say on Flowering Under 13/11?

It’s notoriously difficult to find any peer-reviewed scientific publications on the subject of cannabis cultivation. The question of using 11/13 for flowering is no exception. There’s one major paper that studied the effects of light (intensity, spectrum etc.) on cannabis production. It only briefly states that shorter photoperiod potentially leads to smaller yields*. Well, it’s expected, and this is the same thing as growers on forums say.

Another study actually focused not on medical marijuana, but on hemp grown for fiber. It also noted that shorter photoperiod causes earlier flowering**. The researchers observed little difference in flowering times if days lasted 13 h 40 min or less. However, if light hours were at 14 h 40 min or more, this significantly delayed the beginning of flowering (and the harvest time).

Well, hardly any real-life grower has ever experimented with a 14/10 cycle, so this doesn’t give us much insight. It’s interesting that both 12/12 and 13/11 fall into the “13 h 40 min or less” category, and the scientists didn’t find the difference statistically significant.

And in case you’re wondering what’s the maximum length of day at which most cannabis plants start to flower indoors, it’s 13.2 hours (and 10.8 h of dark)***. So not only the ‘11 on 13 off flowering’ light schedule, but also the opposite (13 on 11 off) can be used for flowering. At least, for indicas and indica-dominant strains.

And that’s it in terms of reliable scientific data. Let’s hope we get more in the future.

What’s the Consensus in the Growing Community?

It’s very difficult to obtain objective results of whether the 13/11 flowering cycle works for you or not. To get hard evidence, you’ll have to run a side-by-side experiment. Nobody has bothered to do this so far.  So we don’t know for sure. Still, there are several points that all 11/13 growers agree upon:

  • A slightly shorter flowering time. Comes handy if you’re in a hurry, or want to save a day or two worth of electricity.
  • A slightly lower yield. Here you have a classical tradeoff between speed and reward. You can try to offset this with more powerful lights though.
  • Saving electricity. Even if the 13 11 light cycle doesn’t make the flowering shorter, you’ll save 1 hour a day worth of energy.

More Controversial Findings on 11/13 Flowering Light Cycle

Perhaps, the list above didn’t inspire you to try less than 12 hours of light during flowering? Well, here are a few extra points that’ll probably change your mind.

At least two celebrity breeders—the legendary DJ Short of the Blueberry fame and Swerve from Cali Connection—recommend to shorten the day during flowering. DJ Short believes that this method is great for breeding. It’s because it increases the expression of sativa genes in a hybrid. This affects the plant structure and the shape and the texture of buds (e.g. foxtailing). More importantly, it also influences the high. Presumably, the standard 12/12 cycle makes the effect more couch-locky. And if you want more of the cerebral sativa energy, you better make light hours shorter and darkness longer. The effect of 11/13 grown buds also tends to be a creeper, according to anecdotal reports.

Some people say that they’ve noticed less stretch on 11/13 during flowering. Which means that you should give your plants a longer veg than normal if you want the same final height.

There’s much controversy about whether the 13/11 flowering time produces more trichomes or less. Some think less light equals less THC. Others say THC gets degraded by light, so more hours of darkness means more potency. Anyway, if you want more resinous buds, the 11/13 method doesn’t seem like a good idea. You may want to try the extended dark period before harvest instead.

Don’t be Afraid to Experiment with 11/13!

For people who love to tweak their growing conditions, changing the photoperiod during flowering presents a lot of opportunities. Just keep in mind that, with days lasting more than 14h 40min, no flowering usually happens. But anything less than that is acceptable and gives you a lot of room for trial and error.

Try and experiment with incremental changes of 15 minutes over several consecutive grows until you hit a sweet spot. For example, you may find that 10h 30 min on / 13 h 30 min off works best for a particular strain. However, you’ll have to find it for yourself—there’s no one-size-fits-all solution. Maybe the tried and true 12/12 schedule would be perfect for you after all? Who knows!

Please tell us what you think in the comments!


External Links:

  1. * An Update on Plant Photobiology and Implications for Cannabis Production, Samuel Eichhorn Bilodeau, et al, Front Plant Science, Published online 2019 Mar 29
  2. ** The Effects of Photoperiod on Phenological Development and Yields of Industrial Hemp, David J Midmore, et al, Journal of Natural Fibers, March 2014
  3. *** Photoperiodic Response of in vitro Cannabis sativa Plants, Melissa Moher, et al, September 2020